انواع برنامه های مهم و اصلی پشتیبان کلی عملیات کامپیوتر درROM_BIOS نگهداری می گردند

مجموعه از برنامه های مهم و اصلی پشتیبان کلی عملیات کامپیوتر درROM_BIOS نگهداری می گردند. این برنامه ها از دوبخش اصلی تقسیم می شوند:

 

۱- بخش اول فقط در هنگام روشن شدن کامپیوتر استفاده می شوند : این گروه برنامه های تست و مقدار دهی اولیه هستند که مطمئن می شوند کامپیوتر در وضعیت کاری خوبی قرار دارد.  تاخیری که بین زمان روشن کردن کامپیوتر  تا شروع کار آن وجود دارد توسط عملیات این برنامه های تست و مقدار دهی یا ( Power On Self Test ) POST  بوجود می آید.

 

۲- بخش دوم گروهی از روتینها به نام سرویس های اصلی ورودی / خروجی یا

BIOS  ( Basic Input /Output Service  )  می باشد. این برنامه ها کنترل درونی و مفصلی را بر روی بخشهای مختلف  کامپیوتر ، مخصوصاً وسایل ورودی / خروجی ، مانند دیسک گردانها فراهم می کنند.

گرداننده ها() احتیاج به نظارت دقیقی (شامل نظارت جامع برای خطا ها )  دارند.

ROM-BIOS  برای کمک به کل عملیات کامپیوتر سرویس های متعدد و مفیدی را ارائه می کند که قابل دسترس برای استفاده توسط سیستم عامل (Dos,windows)

و برنامه های کاربردی می باشند.آخرین بخش روتین های را ه اندازی در ROM_BIOS  روتین بوت می باشد که سعی میکند سیستم عامل را در کامپیوتر بوت کند. عمل بوت تلاش ROM_BIOS برای خواندن رکورد  بوت کننده از آغاز دیسک را در بر دارد.

 

دو بخش دیگر ROM_BIOS  بخش اصلی عملیات اجرایی کامپیوتر را شکل می دهد.  این دو بخش سرویس دهنده وقفه سخت افزار (hardware –interrupt  handler) و دستگذاری سرویس  (service – handling  )  می باشد. آنها به عنوان دو نوع روتین مجزا  اما همکار عمل می کنند.

 

۳-بخش سوم ROM-BIOS  که فقط  برای اعضا  خانواده PC ساخت IBM  به کار می رود.

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